2000 yılı sonrası İstanbul temsilinde çağdaş sanatın rolü

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2013-05-30

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info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States

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Tez kapsamında İstanbul'un küresel rekabet ortamına dahil olmasıyla birlikte geliştirilen kültürel söylem eleştirel olarak incelenmiştir. Küreselleşmenin dünya üzerinde hakimiyetini kurmasıyla dönüştürülen kentlerde güçlü kent markası oluşturmak amaçlı farklı mimari müdahaleler gerçekleştirilmiş, kültürün yeni bir sermaye biçimi olmasıyla birlikte kentte inşa edilen kültürel yapıların kent markası oluşturulmasındaki etkileri gözlenmiştir. Küreselleşme ve kentleşmenin karşılıklı etkileşimi sonucunda sanatın araçsallaştırılmasıyla yaşanan süreç dahilinde ortaya çıkan marka kavramına bağlı olarak marka mimarlar tarafından tasarlanan marka binaların kent üzerindeki hakimiyeti ve kentin dünya kamuoyuna sunulmasındaki etkileri araştırılmıştır. Tez kapsamında insanoğlunun yerleşik düzene geçmesiyle oluşturduğu kentlerin ve kentleşme süreçlerinin dünya genelinde her geçen gün daha hakim duruma gelen küreselleşme doğrultusunda artan önemlerine bağlı olarak gelişimleri incelenmiştir. Kentleşmeyle birlikte güçlü duruma getirilen yerel yönetimlerde kentsel girişimcilik önem kazanmış, kentin küresel boyutta tanınması, sermaye ve işgücü için çekim noktası olabilmesi amaçlı mekansal dönüşümler gerçekleştirmişlerdir. Mekansal dönüşümler üzerinden kentin diğer kentlerden ayrılması sürecinde mimari yapılar önem kazanmış, marka mimarlar tarafından tasarlanan binalar kentin görünen yüzleri durumuna getirilmiştir. Küreselleşmeyle birlikte ülkelerin dönüştürdükleri kentler üzerinden küresel pazarda fark yaratma istekleri doğrultusunda kentleri tüketime sunmuşlar, sermaye ve işgücü için çekim oluşturmuşlardır. Dönüştürülen kentlerde gerçekleştirilen mekansal düzenlemelerde kentli profilinin değiştirilmesi amacı da güdülmektedir. İhtiyaçtan fazla ürünün tüketim amaçlı pazara sürülmesiyle, tüketim kültürüne geçilmiş, kentte gerçekleştirilen mekansal düzenlemelerle kentli tüketime yönlendirilmiştir. Küreselleşmenin dünya üzerindeki hakimiyetiyle birlikte 2tüketim odaklı3 yaşama geçilmiş, ihtiyaçtan fazla üretilen ürünün tüketilmesi için farklı satış stratejileri geliştirilmiştir. Ürünlerde oluşturulan marka değerleri üzerinden yaratılan fark, kentlerde de uygulanmıştır. Bu stratejiler dahilinde farklı mekansal düzenlemeler geliştirilerek boş zaman geçirme fonksiyonlarına alış veriş fonksiyonu da eklenmiştir. Tüketilen ürünlerde oluşturulan marka değerleriyle, tüketilen ürünün oluşturulmak istenen kimlik üzerindeki hakimiyeti dolayısıyla marka değerine sahip ürünlerin tüketilmesi önem kazanmıştır. İletişim ve ulaşım teknolojilerinde yaşanan gelişmeler uzak olanı yakın duruma getirmiş, yere ait özellikleri silmiş, ulusal kimlikleri eriterek kişilerdeki ait olma duygusunun yitirilip, geçmişle olan bağlantılarının silinmesine neden olmuştur. Mekansal engellerin kalkması ve ulaşılabilirlikteki rahatlık sonucunda merkezsiz bir sistemin temel birimleri durumuna getirilen kentler oluşturdukları marka değerleriyle küresel rekabet ortamında varolma savaşı verir duruma getirilmişlerdir. Oluşturulan küresel kapitalizmde kentler bağlı oldukları ülkelerden ayrı bağımsız tüketim ve yönetim birimleri olarak yer almaktadırlar. Kentlerin küresel rekabet ortamına tüketilmek üzere sunulmasıyla gerçekleştirilen mekansal düzenlemelerde kültür etkinlikleri önem kazanmaktadır. Kentlerin devlet idaresinden ayrı kendi kent bünyesindeki yönetim birimlerince idare edilmesi kent girişimciliğini önemli kılmaktadır. Kültürün tüketim amacıyla araçsallaştırılmasıyla kentler, çağdaş sanat müzeleri, bienal, festival gibi büyük ölçekli kültürel faaliyetlerle küresel arenada adlarını güçlendirmektedirler. Bu doğrultuda ikona niteliğindeki çağdaş sanat müzelerinin sayısında büyük artış yaşanmakta, kent bünyesinde düzenlenen festival ve bienaller her geçen sene daha kapsamlı bir şekilde gerçekleştirilmektedir. Çağdaş sanat müzeleri marka değere sahip mimarlar tarafından tasarlanarak içerdikleri sanat eserlerinin önüne geçmekte, kentin görünen yüzü durumunda dünya üzerinde eg
The thesis critically analyses the cultural discourse which was developed with the inclusion of İstanbul in the global competitive environment. As globalization established hegemony over the world cities were transformed and various architectural interventions took place to create strong city brands. With culture turning into a new form of capital cultural structures constructed in the city were closely watched for their impacts on creating the city brand. The interaction between globalization and urbanization resulted in the instrumentalization of art and this process caused a brand concept to emerge. The dominance in the cities of brand buildings which are designed by brand architects based on this concept and their effects on presenting the city to the world public opinion were studied. The thesis examines the development of cities - formed by mankind during the transition to permanent settlements - and the urbanization processes involved in terms of their increasing importance parallel to globalization which permeates the entire world more each day. As urbanization caused a strengthening of local governments urban entrepreuership gained importance resulting in spatial transformations to make the city a globally recognized place to attract capital and workforce. Architectural structures gained importance to distinguish cities through spatial transformations and buildings designed by brand architects became the visible faces of the city. Governments offered the cities which they had transformed under the globalization trend for consumption driven with the desire to stand out in the global market and create a center of attraction for capital and workforce. The spatial arrangements that occurred in the transformed cities also pursued the goal of transforming the profile of the city dweller. With products more than enough put on the market for consumption the transition to the consumption culture took place and the city dweller was driven to consume through the use of spatial arrangements in the city. As globalization ruled the world transition to a “consumption oriented” life took place and different sales strategies were devised to consume products more than that which was enough. The differentiation in products which was created with brand equity was also applied to cities. These strategies promoted the development of different spatial arrangements which resulted in the addition of the shopping function to the leisure time functions. The consumption of products with strong brand equity gained importance as the product consumed dominated the identity which was wished to be created with the brand equity that was built in the products. Developments in communication and transportation technologies brought what was remote to near, erased what was local, melted national identities which caused people to lose their sense of belonging and their ties with the past. With the removal of spatial obstacles and ease of access cities became the fundamental units of a center-less system and were rendered into a position where they fought a war of existence with the brand equities they created in the global competitive environment. In the global capitalism that emerged cities exist as independent consumption and administration units separate from their governments. Cultural events come into prominence in spatial arrangements that are made to offer cities to the global competitive environment for consumption. Administration of cities by their own administrative units, independently from the state administration, makes city entrepreneurship important. Cities strengthen their names in the global arena through large-scale cultural activities including contemporary art museums, bienals, festivals as art is instrumentalized for consumption. Accordingly the number of contemporary art museums which serve as icons increase considerably and the scope of festivals and bienals organized in the city becomes more extensive every year. Designed by brand architects contemporary art museums override the works of arts they exhibit and dominate the world as the visible faces of the city. City brands created through events such as contemporary art museums and bienals are designed to make the city experienced for consumption. With the culture industry individuals are transformed from subjects into objects and are goaded to consume more. Rendering art into a consumable object as well is effective in creating brand equity for the marketing of artistic works. Cultural products that are exhibited in architectural structures which serve as symbols of the city also caused a change in the concept of museum and as the sovereignty of the state over art ended art entered the domain of the private sector and started to function as objects of prestige. “Public spaces” where individuals exit their own sphere to interact with the society underwent a change and assumed different functions in keeping with the citydweller profile which was wished to be created. The changing concept of museum provided the means to experience public space in museums. With shopping centers serving as public spaces the museum also assumed consumption-oriented functions incorporating various functions such as cinemas, food courts, stores along with libraries and exhibition halls. Museums evolved in line with the need of the “commodity” society, which emerged as a result of the global dominance of the consumption culture, for the new. The new was defined as “fashionable” due to its surprising, wild and indefinable nature and the exhibition style of the resulting work of art that questioned the world affected the museums as well. As the tradeability of a work of art as a commercial product increased art came into the possession of business corporations increasing the need to manage artistic works. With post-Fordism spaces of capital became boundless and a flexible production and consumption order prevailed. Accordingly the objective of the employee became to adapt to changing conditions and stand out. Whereas cities were transformed to adapt to evolving global conditions and underwent spatial changes designed by brand architects to stand out. Contemporary art museums that served as the symbol of the city affected the area they were situated in considerably as well as the entire city and turned into a center of attraction becoming synonymous with the name of city. Turkey was included in the global market with the policies it pursued after 1980 and subsequently introduced İstanbul among the cities in the global competition environment. The thesis examines the change İstanbul and İstanbulites underwent to stand out from among their peers to attract capital and workforce in the global competition environment. With the prevalence of the consumption culture the city was positioned as a multi-center space allowing the public space to be experienced in shopping centers opened in different locations. As art became a consumable object contemporary art museums opened after 2000 which helped İstanbul to participate in the global competition through instrumentalization of culture. With cities put on the global market for consumption the number of cultural events in İstanbul increased. The thesis studies this increase by taking into account the cultural events, contemporary art museums, art galleries, spatial arrangements that took place in İstanbul after 2000 and concretizes the result of the study on map.

Açıklama

Text in Turkish ; Abstract: Turkish and English
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 119-131)
xiv, 152 leaves

Anahtar Kelimeler

İstanbul'un kentsel dönüşümü, Kent markası, Kentsel dönüşüm, Küreselleşme, City brand, City renewal, Globalization, İstanbul's renewal

Kaynak

WoS Q Değeri

Scopus Q Değeri

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Sayı

Künye

Karaevli, B. (2013). 2000 yılı sonrası İstanbul temsilinde çağdaş sanatın rolü. İstanbul: Işık Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.